Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science

Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science


Internal Medicine


Dr. Nancy Reid


Heart failure exacerbation is a common cause of illness and hospitalization nationwide. Over six million adults carry a diagnosis of heart failure, and the projected life expectancy for patients following this diagnosis is about five years.1 Patients are maintained on a regimen of medications to aid in the optimization of cardiac function through blood pressure and heart rate stabilization, maintenance of fluid balance, and recuperation of cardiac contractility. Early detection using clinical history taking and thorough physical examination promotes timely interventions and improved outcomes.2 The goal of heart failure management is to avoid disease progression, symptom exacerbation, and hospitalization. Hospitalization for heart failure contributes to a considerable amount of health care expenses and leads to an increase in patient morbidity and mortality.3 Through proper diagnostics and patient education, patient quality of life in heart failure can improve.


Available when accessing via a campus IP address or logged in with a University of Lynchburg email address.

Off-campus users can also use 'Off-campus Download' button above for access.