Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginitis and accounts for more than 90 million cases reported annually worldwide.1 Characterized by a thin, white, milky vaginal discharge and a distinct “fishy” smelling odor, is the most common genital tract infection occurring primarily in women of reproductive age.2 6 The healthy vaginal environment is characterized mainly by the presence of Gram-positive, lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide producing bacilli Lactobacillus spp., specifically, L. crispatus, L. iners, L. gasseri, and L. jensenii recognized as the most common species respectively.2 Anaerobic species of bacteria such as Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mobiluncus spp., Bacteroides spp., and Prevotella spp. are common pathogens associated with bacterial vaginosis infection.2 The occurrence of a dense, structured and polymicrobial biofilm in the vast majority of cases of bacterial vaginosis has been positively identified by multiple researchers and contributes to a high rate of treatment failure with current recommended antimicrobial therapies.3,8
Onorato, Laura E.
"Bacterial Vaginosis: New Concepts in Diagnosis and Treatment,"
Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science: Vol. 1
, Article 21.
Available at: https://digitalshowcase.lynchburg.edu/dmscjournal/vol1/iss2/21
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