University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository

University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository


Trauma Surgery


Nancy Reid, DHSc, MHA, PA-C


Massive and submassive pulmonary embolisms are the third most common cause of cardiovascular death in hospitalized patients and the leading cause of preventable hospital deaths in the United States. These high-risk pulmonary embolisms have a high morbidity and mortality risk with the potential for circulatory collapse within a few hours after presentation without prompt intervention.

The formation of multidisciplinary pulmonary embolism response teams can include providers from emergency medicine, cardiology, cardiothoracic surgeons, vascular surgery, and pulmonary critical care medicine to ensure swift recognition, prompt risk stratification, and decisive early treatment. The treatment options for massive or submassive pulmonary embolisms are systemic thrombolysis, surgical pulmonary embolectomy and endovascular techniques to remove the pulmonary embolism by fragmentation and aspiration or thrombectomy. The high morbidity and mortality associated with massive and submassive pulmonary embolism require a multidisciplinary pulmonary embolism response team to promptly perform risk stratifications, rule out contraindications, and decide on the best-evidence medicine to determine the appropriate treatment plan for a significantly improved outcome with the best quality of life.


Kia Cody, MPAS, PA-C


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