Dr. Tom Colletti
Cardiogenic shock is caused by poor cardiac output secondary to diminished cardiac function, which leads to reduced tissue perfusion and eventually end organ failure. In heart failure patients with systolic dysfunction, this may develop slowly over time as the heart is unable to contract with enough force to perfuse the body. Early signs and symptoms of cardiogenic shock may be nonspecific, such as a bump in the creatinine or a drop in systolic blood pressure. In the outpatient setting, outside of a heart failure-specific clinic, these harbingers can be missed, leading to a delayed diagnosis and increased morbidity and mortality. It is important that clinicians keep in mind that nonspecific symptoms in patients with heart failure can be a sign of cardiogenic shock, and this paper will identify those symptoms as well as the next steps a provider should take in proper evaluation and management.
Grasser T. Identifying Cardiogenic Shock in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure in the Outpatient Setting. University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository. 2021; 3(3).
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