University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository

University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository


Women's Health


Dr. Mark Archambault


Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) is frequently an overlooked cause of chronic pelvic pain in premenopausal females. Hormonal and mechanical changes contribute to pelvic venous dilatation, incompetency, and reflux. The clinical presentation includes a constellation of the following findings that have been present for at least six months: pelvic or lower extremity varices, aching pain or heaviness, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, ovarian point tenderness, and urinary symptoms.1,2,4 The diagnostic test of choice is retrograde ovarian and internal iliac venography.1,3,5 Symptomatic patients can opt for medical or endovascular management.1-5 Appropriate recognition of PCS results in timely referrals, improves patient outcomes, and reduces unnecessary surgeries such as laparoscopy and hysterectomy.


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