University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository

University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository


Family Medicine


Dr. Tom Colletti, DHSc, PA-C, DFAAPA


Type I diabetes mellitus is considered the most common childhood endocrine disease, and it can be diagnosed at any age.1 Type I diabetes mellitus is a chronic autoimmune disease that attacks the beta cells of the pancreas.2 The damage occurs over time. The main factors that increase the chances of becoming a type I diabetic are genetics, epigenetic factors, environment, and immunological. It is common for a type I diabetic to have no family history of type I diabetes mellitus. Type I diabetes mellitus can be treated with insulin injections, insulin pumps, and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) combo.3 Treating type I diabetes mellitus with insulin pumps has increased since 1995 from 1.3% to 47% in 2016.4 Pump technology has improved since the first pump in the 1970s.5 Compared to injections, insulin pumps do a better job mimicking normal pancreatic function and are programmable to change the amount of insulin delivered hourly. Each pump has different functions, and some are more advanced than others. The pumps on the market are Medtronic 630, 770, Insulet Omnipod dash, Tandem t-slim X2, and Roche Accu-check spirit combo.5 The continuous glucose monitors available are Medtronic Elite and Guardian, Abbott Freestyle Navigator II, Freestyle Libre, Dexcom G4 Platinum, G5 Mobile, and G6, and Senseonics Eversense.6


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