University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository

University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository


Family Medicine


Thomas Colletti, DHSc, PA-C, DFAAPA


Objective: Influenza and acute cardiovascular events (ACE) in the elderly population with underlying comorbidities are in the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States. Recent pandemic implications with SARS-CoV-2 shift the influenza narrative within both research and clinical fields. Accordingly, this review aims to construct the landscape for clinicians to advance influenza practice measures and vaccination cardioprotective benefits since no guidelines exist to the authors’ knowledge for a comprehensive approach to a combined screening and treatment pathway.

Methods: Database searches in cross-disciplinary medical and research literature yielded reassuring guideline recommendations for influenza and ACE. These studies included systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), observational studies, cohort studies, and case-control studies. This evidence laid the foundation for development of extensive diagnostic and treatment recommendations in the hospital and ambulatory settings.

Results: Influenza vaccination was found to reduce the odds of developing ACE, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and all-cause mortality risk. Incidence ratios and relative risk were also improved showing secondary prevention of cardiovascular deaths. A proposed clinical pathway was developed to improve vaccination compliance while reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with ACE encountered in ambulatory and hospital settings.

Conclusion: The influenza disease burden may influence epidemiological patterns, complicate medical systems, and exhaust resources. Seasonal influenza, with its variants and interplay with the novel SARS-CoV-2, underscores the clinical or institutional preparation necessary for vigilant preventive programs, screening protocols, and impactful treatment recommendations.


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