University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository

University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository


Dr. Thomas Colletti



Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis of retinoblastoma, inclusive of the two-hit genetic theory, treatment options, and screening examination with the benefits associated with early detection.

Method: A PubMed literature search was conducted with search terms retinoblastoma, two-hit hypothesis, red reflex, and leukocoria. Pertinent articles were retrieved and served as the basis for this clinical review.

Results: A lack of continued evidence-based research demonstrating different screening techniques reveals current approaches and information are still the standards of care.

Conclusion: Retinoblastoma is a form of pediatric ocular cancer. Patients are diagnosed through medical examination, though non-medical persons also play an integral role in detection. Leukocoria in a photograph is the most common sign of this disease. Early detection of this cancer can be both sight-saving and lifesaving. Further research of phone applications can be investigated as new technology is available.


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