University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository

University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository


Family Medicine


Elyse Watkins, DHSc, PA-C, DFAAPA


This article reviews how vitamin D contributes to immune system functioning, discusses recent studies that demonstrate an association between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) status, and provides an approach to medical providers on how they can screen for VDD more cost-effectively to treat patients with VDD appropriately. There is some recently published research that shows a direct relationship between serum vitamin D and COVID-19 with VDD being associated with a weakened immune response and worse outcomes among COVID-19 positive patients. Vitamin D screenings are not routine due to their high cost, variability among assay types, and lack of an international standard defining the amount needed for optimal health. Clinicians can provide risk assessment through the utilization of effective health screening questionnaires to identify patients who are at risk for VDD and subsequently provide appropriate vitamin D supplementation to patients to improve immune response and decrease the likelihood of hospitalization due to COVID-19.


Available when accessing via a campus IP address or logged in with a University of Lynchburg email address.

Off-campus users can also use 'Off-campus Download' button above for access.