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Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science

Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science

Specialty

Internal Medicine / Hospital Medicine (Medical Oncology sub-specialty)

Advisor

Dr. Larry Herman

Abstract

Tumor lysis syndrome is a life-threatening oncologic emergency that often occurs after initiation of cytotoxic therapies or less frequently spontaneously. It is a metabolic abnormality typically seen as a classic tetrad of hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia. This clinical review discusses tumor lysis syndrome and provides evidence-based practical guidelines for early recognition and management in oncologic patients. A PubMed literature search was performed and pertinent articles, which served as the basis for this clinical review article, were retrieved. With new cases of cancer being diagnosed every day, and the increased use of highly effective and novel biologics, molecular, and targeted therapies, tumor lysis syndrome is becoming more common, and an increasingly important topic. Judicious risk assessment coupled with prophylactic interventions with adequate hydration and hypouricemic agents, along with astute electrolytes correction are important strategies for reducing tumor lysis syndrome related morbidities and mortalities.

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