University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository

University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository


Psychiatric-Internal Medicine/Emergency Medicine


Dr. Elyse Watkins




The purpose of this article is to review the increase of chronic disease among Black Indigenous People of Color (BIPoC) especially African American Black people due to racism as opposed to purely biological and or environmental pathology.


PubMed, Google Scholar, New England Journal of Medicine, and Lancet literature searches were done using the terms “diversity,” “healthcare disparities,” and “racial disparities”. Results were filtered for free full text within the last seven years.


Both individual and systemic racism towards those who self-identify as BIPoC has created racial disparities that contribute to minorities being at high risk for a multitude of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, heart disease, neurovascular, and vascular diseases. This has resulted in BIPoC dying at an earlier age than their white counterparts.

Keywords: Diversity, Racial Disparities, Racism.


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