University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository

University of Lynchburg DMSc Doctoral Project Assignment Repository


Physician Assistant


Elyse Watkins, DHSc, PA-C, DFAAPA, NCMP


The following article intends to assess the safety and efficacy of whole blood products for fluid resuscitation in trauma patients, emphasizing the United States Special Operations Forces (SOF) utilization of the Special Operations Low-Titer O Whole Blood Program (SOLO). The use of whole blood products for point-of-injury fluid resuscitation will be contrasted with alternative blood products and traditional crystalloid solutions. The discussion will include risks associated with crystalloids as well as blood products. This article serves to identify the donor screening criteria, protocols, and patient outcomes in trauma patients receiving prehospital blood transfusions with a focus on military SOF recipients and searching for literature focused on using the terms hemorrhagic shock, low titer group o whole blood, fluid resuscitation, and military trauma prioritizing articles with military special operations affiliation. Additionally, the military guidelines for the Special Operations Low Titer Group O program (SOLO) are included and provide the foundation of this article’s intent. There is a lack of substantial evidence regarding the long-term outcomes of military patients receiving whole blood transfusions in special operations patients in austere locations. The articles researched do not specifically address blood procured from the SOLO program. Despite the limited number of SOF cases reported, whole blood is preferred in the special operations forces medical protocol for hemorrhagic shock.


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