Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science

Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science


Emergency Medicine


Dr. Bernard Toney



Acute cerebrovascular disease is the leading cause of preventable adult disability in the United States and worldwide. In patients less than 60 years of age who have had an ischemic stroke, there is an increased likelihood of the presence of a patent foramen ovale. This doctoral thesis will discuss the prevalence of stroke in patients under 60, the economic impact in this patient population, the various modalities available to evaluate for a patent foramen ovale, medical conditions that may suggest the presence of a patent foramen ovale, surgical considerations for patent foramen ovale closure and risks of this procedure, and cost-benefit analysis of patent foramen ovale surgical closure.


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