Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science

Lynchburg Journal of Medical Science


Internal Medicine


Dr. Mary Walton


Diabetes mellitus is a complex medical condition with a variety of symptoms, treatment methods, and potential systemic complications. Risk factors for diabetes include family history, age, race or ethnic background, weight, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, and high cholesterol amongst others. As the prevalence of diabetes rises, particularly in the United States, there is a greater sense of urgency surrounding treatment and prevention of systemic complications. A significant number of new and alternative treatment methods for diabetes mellitus have yielded positive results in glucose control and prevention of systemic complications secondary to uncontrolled diabetes. In this review, new treatment methods will be discussed including insulin therapies, biguanides, sulfonylureas, metiglinides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, incretin mimetics, amylin antagonists, and sodium-glucose transport protein 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Alternative treatment methods will be highlighted including pancreatic beta-cell transplantation and gene therapy, intermittent fasting, ketogenic diet, use of medicinal plants, glucose-response microneedle patches, and use of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. It is imperative that new and alternative treatment methods for diabetes mellitus are understood and that clinicians stay up to date in their practice. Uncovering new and alternative diabetes treatment options can result in an overall better-controlled disease state and help prevent systemic complications.


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