LC Journal of Special Education


In recent years there has been an increasing focus on developing the writing skills of students at all grade levels. Much of the focus has been the result of research that has indicated that students are not able to competently produce a composition that is well organized and effective. Harris, Graham, and Mason (2003) cited a study done by Applebee, Langer, Mullis, Latham, and Gentile (1994) in which national and state writing assessments have suggested that a large portion of elementary and high school students struggle with the writing process and in particular have difficulty with writing narrative, expository, and persuasive compositions. According to Scardamalia and Bereiter (1986), there are five areas that students typically struggle with: generating content, organizing compositions, developing writing goals, efficiently and consistently using the mechanical components of writing, and revising.