LC Journal of Special Education


This paper will explore and synthesize the body of current research on effective reading comprehension instruction and strategies. Beginning with a survey of several variables that affect working memory and executive processes, this paper will discuss how the mind’s ability to interpret text and derive meaning is a critical component for reading comprehension. The article will also explore how the elements of the working memory affect student with learning disabilities (LD). Furthermore, the working memory’s executive process is essential for the “simultaneous process of extracting and construction meaning” from text (Garcia-Madruga et al., 2013, p. 155). In addition, this paper will review and analyze existing evidence-based practices for teaching reading to struggling learners. Strategies such as using direct and explicit instruction, using graphic organizers, mnemonics devices, deriving main idea from texts, and using methods such as the SQ3R strategy are among a significant list that lend themselves to effective reading instruction. This review will investigate the effectiveness of some reading strategies because they are a significant part of a teacher’s instructional process. This paper will contribute to the existing body of literature about the reading comprehension process and the effects of strategic instruction in reading comprehension. This literature review will conclude with a discussion that summarizes major themes and synthesizes the effectiveness of reading comprehension instructional strategies.