LC Journal of Special Education


Functional skills, according to Cronin (1996), are the tasks that help individuals become successful and independent adults. Vandercook (1991) stated, “a true functional skill is one that is initiated, used, and maintained under typical circumstances” (p. 320). Functional skills are often taught in conjunction with functional academics. Bouck and Joshi (2012) defined functional academics as an approach to teach “students the skills to help them be productive members of society and support post school outcomes” (p. 140). Functional academics may include “core subject content, vocational education, community access, daily living, personal finance, independent living, transportation, social skills and relationships, and selfdetermination” (Bouck & Joshi, 2012, p. 140). This article will discuss functional academics as it relates to successful transitions into adulthood through literacy, social skills, selfdetermination, and community involvement instruction.