Date Presented

Spring 5-15-2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Exercise Physiology

First Advisor

Dr. Jill Lucas

Second Advisor

Dr. Jeffrey Herrick

Third Advisor

Dr. Christine Terry


Competitive distance runners are often predisposed to developing iron deficiency. This study aimed to determine if carbonyl iron was more effective at maintaining blood iron markers and minimizing overall fatigue and GI stress than ferrous sulfate. In this randomized, independent groups study, 7 male, division III cross-country athletes were supplemented with either carbonyl iron or ferrous sulfate for 6 weeks. Blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, subjective GI distress, subjective fatigue, and relative exertion of recent training were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks. Results were analyzed via one -way and repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant differences in outcome measures. Factorial ANOVA revealed no significant differences between hemoglobin and hematocrit levels between the two treatments. One-way ANOVA determined no significance in subjective questionnaire outcomes. Carbonyl iron was concluded to have no significantly greater effect than ferrous sulfate on the measured blood markers or subjective questions.